Technological development allows increasing resource efficiency in value chains, processes and products as well as more efficient recycling.
By-products are valuable raw materials for recycled products and materials.
Renewable, recyclable and bio-degradable materials as well as principles of eco-design are favoured in products and their design.
Fossil fuels are replaced by renewable or low-carbon alternatives.
Digital platforms increase the utilisation rate of products and resources and lengthen their service life through renting, selling, sharing and reuse.
Customers pay for a specific feature or performance and avoid the risks related to ownership. The total costs of ownership remain with the service provider. Leasing and rental agreements, for example, generate income.
Products are used for their original application for as long as possible or as many times as possible through repair and servicing, which decreases the need to buy and manufacture new products.